On red hat day, a small but historic change in the college

cardinalsToday marks not only Pope Francis’ fifth red hat day, with the ceremonies to begin at 4 pm Roman time, but also an historical change in the composition of the College of Cardinals, albeit one with, on first glance, little effect on the day to day affairs of the Church.

The College of Cardinals is divided into three ranks: the cardinal-deacons, cardinal-priests and cardinal-bishops. Of these, the cardinal-bishops are of the highest rank and also the smallest of the three groups. Traditionally, the cardinal-bishops were the bishops of the seven* suburbicarian sees, the ancient dioceses surrounding Rome. Before 1962, these cardinals were the actual bishops of the suburbicarian sees, but in that year the position became titular and the dioceses received bishops who had the time to actual manage them.

The cardinal-bishops remained the highest order of cardinals, however, and from their ranks the dean and vice-dean of the entire College were chosen. In times of a sede vacante this becomes most visible, as the dean has the duty of calling the other cardinals to Rome and organising the conclave to elect a new pope. Today, the Dean of the College of Cardinals is the cardinal-bishop of Albano and Ostia, Cardinal Angelo Sodano**.

Le-cardinal-Bechara-Boutros-Rai-aimerait-organiser-avec-autres-responsables-chretiens-sommet-toutes-eglises-Orient_0_1400_1345
Maronite Patriarch Béchara Boutros Raï, an eastern cardinal-bishop

In 1965, the order of cardinal-bishops was expanded by the addition of those patriarchs of eastern Churches in union with Rome who were made cardinals. There are three of these today: the Coptic patriarch and the current and previous Maronite patriarchs. After today’s consistory, they will be joined by the Chaldean patriarch. These eastern cardinal-bishops, while equal in rank to the others, receive no suburbicarian see and do not participate in the election of dean and vice-dean (they are also unable to be elected themselves)***.

Over the centuries, but especially in the last decades, the College of Cardinals has continuously grown in size. For example, about a century ago, the conclave that elected Pope Benedict XV consisted of 57 cardinals (a further 8 were unable to take part), while following today’s consistory, there will be 125 electors. This growth took part solely in the ranks of the cardinal-deacons and the cardinal-priests. The cardinal-bishops steadfastly remained limited to the holders of the suburbicarian sees. To remedy that, Pope Francis decided to select four cardinals to be elevated to the rank of cardinal-bishops. They keep their current title churches and duties, but it may be assumed that they are now first in line to be moved to a suburbicarian see when one falls vacant. The four new cardinal-bishops are full members of the highest section of the hierarchy in all respects, and can vote for and be elected as dean or vice-dean. Canons 350 and 352 of the Code of Canon Law limit this to the holders of the suburbicarian sees, but that limitation has been waived for the new cardinal-bishops.

For this honour, which is simultaneously an obligation, Pope Francis has selected four cardinals from three different countries, who all work in the Curia in Rome.

  1. parolinPietro Cardinal Parolin, Secretary of State, 63. Perhaps the most important rising star in Francis’ papacy. A trained diplomat, the erstwhile Nuncio to Venezuela was called to Rome in 2013 to succeed Cardinal Bertone as Secretary of State. In 2014 he was made a cardinal with the title of Santi Simone e Giuda Taddeo a Torre Angela, and was added to the Council of Cardinals, the C9, that assists the pope in reforming the Curia, about a year after that group was established.
  2. LeonardoSandriLeonardo Cardinal Sandri, Prefect of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches, 74. Argentinean like the pope, Cardinal Sandri is also a diplomat, having served as Nuncio to Venezuela and Mexico before joining the Secretariat of State as Substitute for General Affairs in 2000. He became Prefect of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches in 2007 and was made a cardinal in that same year. Last month, he was one of the cardinal-deacons who were promoted to cardinal-priests. He maintained is title of Santi Biagio e Carlo ai Catinari, as he does with his elevation to cardinal-bishop.
  3. Marc OuelletMarc Cardinal Ouellet, Prefect of the Congregation for Bishops, 74. Secretary of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity in 2001 and 2002, the Canadian prelate returned home as archbishop of Québec, and was made a cardinal in 2003, with Santa Maria in Traspontina as his title church. Since 2010 he serves as prefect of the congregation which controls the appointing of bishops around the world.
  4. cardinalefiloni-kBED-U1101609431438Nc-1024x576@LaStampa.it-R65On4HldM4ptvJ2jZdZVeM-568x320@LaStampa.itFernando Cardinal Filoni, Prefect of the Congregation for the Evangelisation of Peoples, 72. Like two of his three classmates a diplomat, having served as Nuncio in Jordan, Iraq and the Philippines. Like Cardinal Sandri, he also served as Substitute for General Affairs in the Secretariat of State, from 2007 to 2011. In that latter year he became Prefect of the Congregation for the Evangelisation of Peoples, and was made a cardinal in 2012. He holds the title of Nostra Signora do Coromoto in San Giovanni di Dio.

In paractice these changes mean that Cardinals Parolin, Sandri, Ouellet and Filoni are among the most significant collaborators of the pope, and when the time for a conclave comes, it will be Cardinal Parolin who will oversee the proceedings: he will take on those duties that Cardinal Sodano is unable to because of his age.

With these elevations and the creation of fourteen new cardinals today, the makeup of the entire College of Cardinals is listed below. In bold are those cardinals under the age of 80, who can vote in a conclave. Their duties and offices are summarised here. In many cases, especially for cardinals working in the curia, they have or had several functions. I have chosen to list only their most prominent or best-known roles.

Cardinal-Bishops

  1. Angelo Cardinal Sodano: Dean of the College of Cardinals, Secretary of State emeritus
  2. Giovanni Battista Cardinal Re: Vice-Dean of the College of Cardinals, Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for Bishops
  3. Roger Cardinal Etchegaray: President emeritus of the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace
  4. Francis Cardinal Arinze: Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments
  5. Tarcisio Cardinal Bertone: Secretary of State emeritus
  6. José Cardinal Saraiva Martins: Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints
  7. Pietro Cardinal Parolin: Secretary of State
  8. Leonardo Cardinal Sandri: Prefect of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches
  9. Marc Cardinal Ouellet: Prefect of the Congregation for Bishops
  10. Fernando Cardinal Filoni: Prefect of the Congregation for the Evangelisation of Peoples
  11. Nasrallah Pierre Cardinal Sfeir: Patriarch emeritus of Antioch (Maronite Rite)
  12. Antonios Cardinal Naguib: Patriarch emeritus of Alexandria (Coptic Rite)
  13. Béchara Pierre Cardinal Raï: Patriarch of Antioch (Maronite Rite)
  14. Louis Raphaël I Cardinal Sako: Patriarch of Babylon (Chaldean Rite)

Cardinal-Priests

  1. Michael Michai Cardinal Kitbunchu: Archbishop emeritus of Bangkok
  2. Alexandre Cardinal do Nascimento: Archbishop emeritus of Luanda
  3. Godfried Cardinal Danneels: Archbishop emeritus of Mechelen-Brussel
  4. Thomas Stafford Cardinal Williams: Archbishop emeritus of Wellington
  5. Henryk Roman Cardinal Gulbinowicz: Archbishop emeritus of Wroclaw
  6. Jozef Cardinal Tomko: Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for the Evangelisation of Peoples
  7. Paul Cardinal Poupard: President emeritus of the Pontifical Council for Culture, President emeritus of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue
  8. Friedrich Cardinal Wetter: Archbishop emeritus of München und Freising
  9. Adrianus Johannes Cardinal Simonis: Archbishop emeritus of Utrecht
  10. Eduardo Cardinal Martínez Somalo: Prefect emeritus of the Consecration for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life
  11. Achille Cardinal Silvestrini: Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches
  12. José Freire Cardinal Falcão: Archbishop emeritus of Brasília
  13. Alexandre José María Cardinal dos Santos: Archbishop emeritus of Maputo
  14. Christian Wiyghan Cardinal Tumi: Archbishop emeritus of Douala
  15. Edward Idris Cardinal Cassidy: President emeritus of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity
  16. Nicolás de Jesús Cardinal López Rodríguez: Archbishop emeritus of Santo Domingo
  17. Roger Michael Cardinal Mahony: Archbishop emeritus of Los Angeles
  18. Camillo Cardinal Ruini: Vicar General emeritus for the Vicariate of Rome, Archpriest emeritus of S. John Lateran
  19. Henri Cardinal Schwery: Bishop emeritus of Sion
  20. Jaime Lucas Cardinal Ortega y Alamino: Archbishop emeritus of Havana
  21. Julius Riyadi Cardinal Darmaatmadja: Archbishop emeritus of Jakarta
  22. Emmanuel Cardinal Wamala: Archbishop emeritus of Kampala
  23. Adam Joseph Cardinal Maida: Archbishop emeritus of Detroit
  24. Vinko Cardinal Puljic: Archbihsop of Vrhbosna
  25. Juan Cardinal Sandoval Íñiguez: Archbihsop emeritus of Guadalajara
  26. Jorge Arturo Cardinal Medina Estévez: Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments
  27. James Francis Cardinal Stafford: Archbishop emeritus of Denver
  28. Salvatore Cardinal De Giorgi: Archbishop emeritus of Palermo
  29. Serafim Fernandes Cardinal de Araújo: Archbishop emeritus of Belo Horizonte
  30. Antonio María Cardinal Rouco Varela: Archbishop emeritus of Madrid
  31. Polycarp Cardinal Pengo: Archbishop of Dar-es-Salaam
  32. Christoph Cardinal Schönborn: Archbishop of Vienna
  33. Norberto Cardinal Rivera Carrera: Archbishop emeritus of Mexico
  34. Marian Cardinal Jaworski: Archbishop emeritus of Lviv
  35. Janis Cardinal Pujats: Archbishop emeritus of Riga
  36. Agostino Cardinal Cacciavillan: President emeritus of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See
  37. Sergio Cardinal Sebastiani: President emeritus of the Prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See
  38. Zenon Cardinal Grocholewski: Prefect of the Congregation for Catholic Education
  39. Crescenzio Cardinal Sepe: Archbishop of Naples
  40. Walter Cardinal Kasper: President emeritus of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity
  41. Geraldo Majella Cardinal Agnelo: Archbishop emeritus of São Salvador de Bahia
  42. Pedro Cardinal Rubiano Sáenz: Archbishop emeritus of Bogotá
  43. Theodore Edgar Cardinal McCarrick: Archbishop emeritus of Washington
  44. Audrys Juozas Cardinal Backis: Archbishop emeritus of Vilnius
  45. Francisco Javier Cardinal Errázuriz Ossa: Archbishop emeritus of Santiago de Chile
  46. Wilfrid Fox Cardinal Napier: Archbishop of Durban
  47. Óscar Andrés Cardinal Rodríguez Maradiaga: Archbishop of Tegucigalpa and Coordinator of the Council of Cardinals
  48. Juan Luis Cardinal Cipriani Thorne: Archbishop of Lima
  49. Francisco Cardinal Álvarez Martínez: Archbishop emeritus of Toledo
  50. Cláudio Cardinal Hummes: Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for Clergy
  51. Severino Cardinal Poletto: Archbishop emeritus of Torino
  52. Jean-Louis Cardinal Tauran: President of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue and Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church
  53. Julián Cardinal Herranz Casado: President emeritus of the Pontifical Council for Legislative Texts
  54. Javier Cardinal Lozano Barragán: President emeritus of the Pontifical Council for Pastoral Assistance to Health Care Workers
  55. Angelo Cardinal Scola: Archbishop emeritus of Milan
  56. Anthony Olubunmi Cardinal Okogie: Archbishop emeritus of Lagos
  57. Gabriel Cardinal Zubier Wako: Archbishop emeritus of Khartoum
  58. Carlos Cardinal Amigo Vallejo: Archbihsop emeritus of Sevilla
  59. Justin Francis Cardinal Rigali: Archbishop emeritus of Philadelphia
  60. Eusébio Oscar Cardinal Scheid: Archbishop emeritus of Rio de Janeiro
  61. Ennio Cardinal Antonelli: President emeritus of the Pontifical Council for the Family
  62. Peter Kodwo Appiah Cardinal Turkson: Prefect of the Dicastery for Promoting Integral Human Development
  63. Telesphore Placidus Cardinal Toppo: Archbishop emeritus of Ranchi
  64. George Cardinal Pell: Prefect of the Secretariat for the Economy
  65. Josip Cardinal Bozanic: Archbishop of Zagreb
  66. Jean-Baptise Cardinal Pham Minh Man: Archbishop emeritus of Ho Chi Minh City
  67. Philipp Christian Igance Marie Cardinal Barbarin: Archbishop of Lyon
  68. Péter Cardinal Erdö: Archbishop of Esztergom-Budapest
  69. William Joseph Cardinal Levada: Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith
  70. Franc Cardinal Rode: Prefect emeritus of the Consecration for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life
  71. Agostino Cardinal Vallini: Pontifical Legate for the Basilicas of St. Francis and St. Mary of the Angels in Assisi
  72. Jorge Liberato Cardinal Urosa Savino: Archbishop of Caracas
  73. Gaudencio Borbon Cardinal Rosales: Archbishop emeritus of Manila
  74. Jean-Pierre Bernard Cardinal Ricard: Archbishop of Bordeaux
  75. Antonio Cardinal Cañizares Llovera: Archbishop of Valencia
  76. Nicholas Cardinal Cheong Jin-suk: Archbishop emeritus of Seoul
  77. Seán Patrick Cardinal O’Malley: Archbishop of Boston
  78. Stanislaw Cardinal DziwiszArchbishop emeritus of Kraków
  79. Joseph Cardinal Zen Ze-kiun: Bishop emeritus of Hong Kong
  80. Albert Cardinal Vanhoye: Secretary emeritus of the Pontifical Biblical Commission
  81. Giovanni Cardinal Lajolo: President emeritus of the Governorate of the Vatican City State and President emeritus of the Pontifical Commission for the Vatican City State
  82. Paul Josef Cardinal Cordes: President emeritus of the Pontifical Council “Cor Unum”
  83. Angelo Cardinal Comastri: Archpriest of St. Peter and Vicar General for the Vatican City State
  84. Stanislaw Cardinal Rylko: Archpries of St. Mary Major
  85. Raffaele Cardinal Farina: Librarian emeritus of the Vatican Apostolic Library and Archivist emeritus of the Vatican Secret Archives
  86. Seán Baptist Cardinal Brady: Archbishop emeritus of Armagh
  87. Lluís Cardinal Martinez Sistach: Archbishop emeritus of Barcelona
  88. André Armand Cardinal Vingt-Trois: Archbishop emeritus of Paris
  89. Angelo Cardinal Bagnasco: Archbishop of Genova
  90. Théodore-Adrien Cardinal Sarr: Archbishop emeritus of Dakar
  91. Oswald Cardinal Gracias: Archbishop of Bombay
  92. Francisco Cardinal Robles Ortega: Archbishop of Guadalajara
  93. Daniel Nicholas Cardinal DiNardo: Archbishop of Galveston-Houston
  94. Odilo Pedro Cardinal Scherer: Archbishop of São Paulo
  95. John Cardinal Njue: Archbishop of Nairobi
  96. Estanislao Esteban Cardinal Karlic: Archbishop emeritus of Paraná
  97. Raúl Eduardo Cardinal Vela Chiriboga: Archbishop emeritus of Quito
  98. Laurent Cardinal Monsengwo Pasinya: Archbishop of Kinshasa
  99. Paolo Cardinal Romeo: Archbishop emeritus of Palermo
  100. Donald William Cardinal Wuerl: Archbishop of Washington
  101. Raymundo Damasceno Cardinal Assis: Archbishop emeritus of Aparecida
  102. Kazimierz Cardinal Nycz: Archbishop of Warszawa
  103. Albert Malcolm Ranjith Cardinal Patabendige Don: Archbishop of Colombo
  104. Reinhard Cardinal Marx: Archbishop of München und Freising
  105. José Manuel Cardinal Estepa Llaurens: Military Ordinary emeritus of Spain
  106. George Cardinal Alencherry: Major Archbishop of Ernakulam-Angamaly (Syro-Malabar Rite)
  107. Thomas Christopher Cardinal Collins: Archbishop of Toronto
  108. Dominik Cardinal Duka: Archbishop of Prague
  109. Willem Jacobus Cardinal Eijk: Archbishop of Utrecht
  110. Giuseppe Cardinal Betori: Archbishop of Firenze
  111. Timothy Michael Cardinal Dolan: Archbishop of New York
  112. Rainer Maria Cardinal Woelki: Archbishop of Köln
  113. John Cardinal Tong Hon: Bishop emeritus of Hong Kong
  114. Lucian Cardinal Muresan: Major Archbishop of Fagaras si Alba Iulia (Romanian Rite)
  115. Baselios Cleemis Cardinal Thottunkal: Major Archbishop of Trivandrum (Syro-Malankar Rite)
  116. John Olorunfemi Cardinal Onaiyekan: Archbishop of Abuja
  117. Jesús Rubén Cardinal Salazar Gómez: Archbishop of Bogotá
  118. Luis Antonio Gokim Cardinal Tagle: Archbishop of Manila
  119. Vincent Gerard Cardinal Nichols: Archbishop of Westminster
  120. Leopoldo José Cardinal Brenes Solórzano: Archbishop of Managua
  121. Gérald Cyprien Cardinal Lacroix: Archbishop of Québec
  122. Jean-Pierre Cardinal Kutwa: Archbishop of Abidjan
  123. Orani João Cardinal Tempesta: Archbishop of Rio de Janeiro
  124. Gualtiero Cardinal Bassetti: Archbishop of Perugia-Città della Pieve
  125. Mario Aurelio Cardinal Poli: Archbishop of Buenos Aires
  126. Andrew Cardinal Yeom Soo-jung: Archbishop of Seoul
  127. Ricardo Cardinal Ezzati Andrello: Archbishop of Santiago de Chile
  128. Philippe Nakellentuba Cardinal Ouédraogo: Archbishop of Ouagadougou
  129. Orlando Beltran Cardinal Quevedo: Archbishop of Cotabato
  130. Chibly Cardinal Langlois: Bishop of Les Cayes
  131. Fernando Cardinal Sebastián Aguilar: Archbishop emeritus of Pamplona y Tudela
  132. Kelvin Edward Cardinal Felix: Archbishop emeritus of Castries
  133. Manuel José Cardinal Macário do Nascimento Clemente: Patriarch of Lissabon
  134. Berhaneyesus Demerew Cardinal Souraphiel: Metropolitan of Addis Abeba (Ethiopic Rite)
  135. John Atcherley Cardinal Dew: Archbishop of Wellington
  136. Edoardo Cardinal Menichelli: Archbishop emeritus of Ancona-Osimo
  137. Pierre Cardinal Nguyen Van Nhon: Archbishop of Hanoi
  138. Alberto Cardinal Suárez Inda: Archbishop emeritus of Morelia
  139. Charles Maung Cardinal Bo: Archbishop of Yangon
  140. Francis Xavier Kriengsak Cardinal Kovithavanij: Archbishop of Bangkok
  141. Francesco Cardinal Montenegro: Archbishop of Agrigento
  142. Daniel Fernando Cardinal Sturla Berhouet: Archbishop of Montevideo
  143. Ricardo Cardinal Blázquez Pérez: Archbishop of Valladolid
  144. José Luis Cardinal Lacunza Maestrojuán: Bishop of David
  145. Arlindo Cardinal Gomes Furtado: Bishop of Santiago de Cabo Verde
  146. Soane Patita Cardinal Mafi: Bishop of Tonga
  147. José de Jesús Cardinal Pimiento Rodriguez: Archbishop emeritus of Manizales
  148. Luis Héctor Cardinal Villalba: Archbishop emeritus of Tucumán
  149. Júlio Duarte Cardinal Langa: Bishop emeritus of Xai-Xai
  150. Dieudonné Cardinal Nzapalainga: Archbishop of Bangui
  151. Carlos Cardinal Osoro Sierra: Archbishop of Madrid
  152. Sérgio Cardinal da Rocha: Archbishop of Brasília
  153. Blase Joseph Cardinal Cupich: Archbishop of Chicago
  154. Patrick Cardinal D’Rozario: Archbishop of Dhaka
  155. Baltazar Enrique Cardinal Porras Cardozo: Archbishop of Mérida
  156. Jozef Cardinal De Kesel: Archbishop of Mechelen-Brussel
  157. Maurice Cardinal Piat: Bishop of Port-Louis
  158. Carlos Cardinal Aguiar Retes: Archbishop of Mexico
  159. John Cardinal Ribat: Archbishop of Port Moresby
  160. Joseph William Cardinal Tobin: Archbishop of Newark
  161. Anthony Soter Cardinal Fernandez: Archbishop emeritus of Kuala Lumpur
  162. Renato Cardinal Corti: Bishop emeritus of Novara
  163. Sebastian Koto Cardinal Khoarai: Bishop emeritus of Mohale’s Hoek
  164. Jean Cardinal Zerbo: Archbishop of Bamako
  165. Juan José Cardinal Omella Omella: Archbishop of Barcelona
  166. Anders Cardinal Arborelius: Bishop of Stockholm
  167. Lousi-Marie Cardinal Ling Mangkhanekhoun: Vicar Apostolic of Vientiane
  168. Gregorio Cardinal Rosa Chávez: Auxiliary Bishop of San Salvador
  169. Joseph Cardinal Coutts: Archbishop of Karachi
  170. António Augusto Cardinal dos Santos Marto: Bishop of Leiria-Fátima
  171. Pedro Ricardo Cardinal Barreto Jimeno: Archbishop of Huancayo
  172. Désiré Cardinal Tsarahazana: Archbishop of Toamasina
  173. Giuseppe Cardinal Petrocchi: Archbishop of L’Aquila
  174. Thomas Aquino Manyo Cardinal Maeda: Archbishop of Osaka
  175. Sergio Cardinal Obeso Rivera: Archbishop emeritus of Jalapa
  176. Toribio Cardinal Ticona Porco: Prelate emeritus of Corocoro

Cardinal-Deacons

  1. Renato Cardinal Martino: President emeritus of the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace and President emeritus of the Pontifical Council for Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerant People
  2. Angelo Cardinal Amato: Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints
  3. Robert Cardinal Sarah: Prefect of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments
  4. Francesco Cardinal Monterisi: Archpriest emeritus of St. Paul Outside-the-Walls
  5. Raymond Leo Cardinal Burke: Patron of the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta
  6. Kurt Cardinal Koch: President of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity
  7. Paolo Cardinal Sardi: Patron emeritus of the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta
  8. Mauro Cardinal Piacenza: Major Penitentiary of the Apostolic Penitentiary
  9. Gianfranco Cardinal Ravasi: President of the Pontifical Council for Culture
  10. Elio Cardinal Sgreccia: President emeritus of the Pontifical Academy for Life
  11. Walter Cardinal Brandmüller: President emeritus of the Pontifical Committee of Historical Sciences
  12. Manuel Cardinal Monteiro de Castro: Major Penitentiary emeritus of the Apostolic Penitentiary
  13. Santos Cardinal Abril y Castelló: Archpriest emeritus of St. Mary Major
  14. Antonio Maria Cardinal Vegliò: President emeritus of the Pontifical Council for Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerant People
  15. Giuseppe Cardinal Bertello: President of the Governorate of the Vatican City State and President of the Pontifical Commission for the Vatican City State
  16. Francesco Cardinal Coccopalmerio: President emeritus of the Pontifical Council for Legislative Texts
  17. João Cardinal Bráz de Aviz: Prefect of the Consecration for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life
  18. Edwin Frederick Cardinal O’Brien: Grand Master of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepuclhre of Jerusalem
  19. Domenico Cardinal Calcagno: President emeritus of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See
  20. Giuseppe Cardinal Versaldi: Prefect of the Congregation for Catholic Education
  21. Prosper Cardinal Grech: Priest of the Archdiocese of Malta
  22. James Michael Cardinal Harvey: Archpriest of St. Paul-Outside-the-Walls
  23. Lorenzo Cardinal Baldisseri: Secretary General of the Synod of Bishops
  24. Gerhard Ludwig Cardinal Müller: Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith
  25. Beniamino Cardinal Stella: Prefect of the Congregation for Clergy
  26. Dominique Francois Joseph Cardinal Mamberti: Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura
  27. Luigi Cardinal De Magistris: Major Pro-Penitentiary emeritus
  28. Karl-Josef Cardinal Rauber: Apostolic Nuncio emeritus to Belgium and Luxembourg
  29. Mario Cardinal Zenari: Apostolic Nuncio to Syria
  30. Kevin Joseph Cardinal Farrell: Prefect of the Dicastery for Laity, Family and Life
  31. Ernest Cardinal Simoni: Priest of the Diocese of Shkodrë-Pult
  32. Luis Francisco Cardinal Ladaria Ferrer: Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith
  33. Angelo Cardinal De Donatis: Archpriest of St. John Lateran and Vicar General for the Vicariate of Rome
  34. Giovanni Angelo Cardinal Becciu: Prefect of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints
  35. Konrad Cardinal Krajewski: Almoner of His Holiness
  36. Aquilino Cardinal Bocos Merino: Superior General emeritus of the Missionary Sons of the Immaculate Heart of Mary

*Over time, there have been some mergers and splits among these seven sees, but today they are: Albano, Frascati, Ostia, Palestrina, Porto-Santa Rufina, Sabina-Poggio Mirteto and Velletri-Segni.

*The title of Ostia is given to the Dean in addition to his own titular diocese. It has no bishop of its own and it is governed by the vicar-general for the Vicariate of Rome, currently Archbishop Angelo De Donatis, who himself will be made a cardinal today.

***This may be one of the reasons for today’s changes. If a conclave were to be held now, its proceedings would be overseen by Maronite Patriarch Béchara Cardinal Raï, himself not a Roman prelate. This would be so because the dean, at 90, is too old to participate in a conclave and his duties would then automatically fall to the senior cardinal-bishop who is also an elector. Cardinal Raï is the sole elector among the cardinal-bishops today.

Photo credit: [2] Alessia GIULIANI/CPP/CIRIC, [4] CNS/Paul Haring, [5] AP Photo/Andrew Medichini

 

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A second Red Dawn rises

While fog hides the view from my window, a red dawn rises over Rome as Pope Benedict XVI gets ready to create six new members of the College of Cardinals. Who are these princes of the Churches again, in the smallest crop since the 1977 consistory which, among others, saw one Joseph Ratzinger made a cardinal?

Archbishop James Michael Harvey was, until yesterday, the Prefect of the Papal Household. As was announced earlier, he was moved yesterday to become Archpriest of the Papal Basilica of St. Paul-Outside-the-Walls. In many eyes, this is a classic promotion out of the limelight for Cardinal-designate Harvey’s role in the Vatileaks case. Under his watch, papal documents were stolen and published, with the archbishop defending the convicted papal butler Paolo Gabriele before his actions became clear. While he was never even implicated, it is said that Archbishop Harvey submitted his resignation to the pope after Gabriele’s arrest. While prefects of the Household are usually eventually made cardinals, this happens when they were past retirement age. Cardinal-designate Harvey is 63.

As archpriest of a papal basilica, he has certain custodial and liturgical functions (which are worthy in their own right), but very few, if any, well-defined duties in the Roman Curia.

Cardinal Harvey will be a Cardinal-Deacon.

Patriarch Béchara Pierre Raï is the head of the Maronite Catholic Church of the Middle East, especially Lebanon. His three predecessor were also cardinals, so his creation is not a surprise.  And perhaps the pope’s recent visit to Lebanon also played a role in cementing his nomination. Patriarch Raï is 72 and will be made a Cardinal-Bishop by virtue of his position at the head of a Catholic Church in union with Rome. He will not be given a title church, as he is outside the hierarchy of the Latin Church, but not outside the world Church.

Archbishop Baselios Cleemis Thottunkal also heads a separate Church in union with Rome, the Syro-Malankar Church of India. He will be the youngest cardinal of all, and will be the first archbishop of Trivandrum to be made a cardinal. During the Synod of Bishops on the new evangelisation his bearded presence was already much noticed. Cardinal Thottunkal will be a Cardinal-Priest.

Archbishop John Olorunfemi Onaiyekan is the much-respected archbishop of Nigeria’s capital, Abuja. Most recently, he unequivocally spoke against the terrorist actions of Boko Haram in the north of Nigeria, while at the same time seeking relations with Muslims in Nigeria. He is also strongly against a proposed division of the country into a Christian south and a Muslim north. Nigeria’s old capital, Lagos, is also headed by a cardinal, but the value of the western country in the Church is surely reflected by this appointment if a second one, who will be a Cardinal-Priest.

Archbishop Jesús Rubén Salazar Gómez is the archbishop of Bogotá, capital of Colombia, a nation which, considering its Catholic population, was long overdue for the appointment of a second cardinal. Clearly pro-life, Cardinal-designate Salazar Gómez will also be a Cardinal-Priest.

Archbishop Luis Antonio Gokim Tagle, is the rising star of the Church in Asia. Heading the major Archdiocese of Manila in the Philippines, Cardinal-designate Tagle will be the second-youngest cardinal of the bunch. He has his critics, but in general he is enormously popular, not least because of his use of social media. Affectionately referred to as “Archbishop Chito”, Cardinal-designate Tagle is a very welcome addition to the Asian part of the College. He, too, will be a Cardinal-Priest.

With the elevation of this international group, the first since 1924 to include no Europeans, the group of cardinals who are eligible to vote in a conclave reaches 120.

As for today’s ceremony, which will be conducted according to the exact same norms as this year’s previous one, it can be viewed via the Vatican Player, while the booklet for the celebration may be found here. Things are set to get rolling at 11am local time, which is 10am GMT.

An exact handful for new cardinal titles

With the six-cardinal consistory of 24 November approaching, it is once again a good time to take a look at the available title churches or deaconries that the new cardinals will be receiving.

As of today, there are ten titles available, and only five cardinals awaiting one. Patriarch Béchara Boutros Raï will not be receiving a title Church in Rome since he is not part of the clergy of the Roman Catholic Church. Instead, his own Maronite patriarchate of Antioch will also be his title. In a way, this reflects the fact that, in his Maronite Catholic Church, he holds a position similar to the pope in the Roman Catholic Church. He is the first bishop among equals, but the pope has further duties, rights and position that makes it possibly for the patriarch to be made a cardinal of the Church by the pope.

Cardinal-designate Raï position as patriarch will, however, mean that he will be a cardinal with the rank of Cardinal-Bishop. Upon his creation, there will be ten of these.

This leaves five cardinals who will be given a  title church. One of these, being a curial prelate,will be made a cardinal-deacon. He is Archbishop James Harvey, currently the prefect of the Papal Household, but after his creation he will become archpriest of the papal basilica of St. Paul-Ouside-the-Walls. There are five vacant cardinal deaconries, which could be given to him. The one with the longest pedigree is the ancient Santa Maria in Cosmedin (pictured at right), vacant since 1967. Also possible are two deaconries which only recently became vacant: Sant’Anselmo all’Aventino, last held by Cardinal Baldelli until his death in September; and San Pio V a Villa Carpegna, vacant since the passing of Cardinal Sánchez in March.

The four future cardinal-priest have a choice between ten vacant title churches. Among them are the late Cardinal Martini’s Santa Cecilia and Cardinal Shan Kuo-Hsi’s San Crisogono, which has been held by cardinals from South-America, Africa and Asia in succession, so it may well be given again this time around, to either Archbishops Onaiyekan, Salazar Gómez or Tagle.

Any guesses, with such as mall group of new cardinals, including the first Syro-Malankar cardinal, are just guesses. Of course, a new Roman church may be elevated to a cardinal title as well. There are a fair number of title churches which have relatively recently been made so, with only previous cardinal-protector. Guesswork. We’ll all find out on the 24th…

Photo credit: Lamré, Wikipedia

Risky trip – Pope to Lebanon

A week from today, on 14 September, Pope Benedict XVI will depart on what is, in some ways, one of the most risky apostolic journeys of his papacy. He will be returning to the Middle East for the fourth time – after Turkey (2006), Jordan, Israel and Palestine (2009) and Cyprus (2010) – and this time the ever-looming spectre of local tensions is very concrete in the form of the civil war raging in next-door Syria. And with Lebanon’s recent history firmly tied up with that of Syria, the papal journey has been in limbo until recently.

Lebanon is the most Christian country in the Middle East, with almost 40% of the population belonging to several Christian churches, with the Syriac Maronite Church of Antioch being the largest of these. Other Churches in union with Rome that have a significant presence in Lebanon are the Greek Melkites, the Armenian, the Chaldean, the Syrian and the Roman Catholic Church. All these Churches have their own circumscriptions, which makes for an intricate landscape of dioceses, patriarchates and vicariates. There are 33 active bishops and patriarchs in the country, headed by   the Patriarchs Béchara Pierre Raï (Maronite), Nersès Bédros XIX Tarmouni (Armenian) and Ignace Youssif III Younan (Syrian). Also of note are Lebanon’s only cardinal, Nasrallah Pierre Sfeir (Maronite emeritus) and Ignace Pierre VIII Abdel-Ahad (Syrian emeritus).

The upcoming papal visit will be a three-day affair, with major events careful spaced over the available time. On 14 September, the Holy Father will obviously be welcomed in Beirut, and he will sign the Post-Synodal Exhortation of the Special Assembly for the Middle East of the Synod of Bishops (which he himself kicked off during his visit to Cyprus two years ago). On 15 September, Pope Benedict will meet with representatives of the government, diplomats, religious leaders (always interesting in a country with a strong Muslim presence) and the world of culture. He’ll also meet with young people, another staple of papal visits abroad, at the Maronite Patriarchate in Bkerké. The last day, 16 September, will see a public Mass and the presentation of the Post-Synodal Exhortation, as well as the recitation of the Angelus and the departure ceremony.

A fairly short visit, but an important one, as its impact will not be limited to Lebanon. Countries like Syria and Iraq, which also have fairly significant Christian minorities, are no doubt also a focal point of this visit.

In the meantime, let’s pray for safety for the Holy Father during his journey to a place where tensions run high, and for a fruitful apostolic journey, for Christians in Lebanon and abroad.

After the Maronites and the Ukrainians, a new chief shepherd for the Syro-Malabarese

It seems that 2011 is shaping up to be the year in which the eastern churches united to Rome are picking new major archbishops and patriarchs (which, I assume, sounds like bad news for those men who are still in good health or relatively young), for, after the Maronite Church elected Bechara Pierre Raï as their patriarch in March and the Ukrainian Church picked Sviatoslav Shevchuk as major archbishop very shortly after that, it is now the Syro-Malabarese Church of southern India to get a new chief shepherd.

The Syro-Malabarese Church is a church with its own rite and culture in union with Rome. Its heartland is the southern Indian state of Kerala and it traces its origins to the evangelisation efforts of Saint Thomas the Apostle, who, tradition says, travelled to India after the resurrection of the Lord to spread the good news there.

The Syro-Malabarese Church has one major archdiocese (of which more below), four regular archdioceses and twenty-four dioceses (twenty-three in India and one in the United States). There are also four religious orders. The Major Archdiocese of Ernakulam-Angamaly has pride of place among these, and on 1 April of this year it lost its major archbishop, Cardinal Varkey Vithayathil. After his death the bishops of the church came together in conclave to elect a successor and, as is customary for the eastern churches in union with Rome, it is up to the pope to confirm the election. Pope Benedict XVI did not hesitate in doing so and yesterday Major Archbishop George Alencherry was confirmed as the new head of the Syro-Malabarese Church.

Major Archbishop Alencherry is 66 and before his election he was the bishop of the Diocese of Thuckalay on India’s far southern tip, a position he had held since 1996. Mar Alencherry has been a priest since 1972.

The website of the archdiocese, linked above, announces that Mar Alencherry will be installed next Sunday, the 29th. The same website also offers a profile of the new head of the 3.6 million Syro-Malabarese Catholics.

A new shepherd for the Ukrainians

On the day that the new patriarch of the Maronite Catholics was enthroned, another major church in full communion with Rome receives a new head as well. After is election on Thursday, the name of the new Metropolitan Archbishop of Kyiv-Halyč and President of the Synod of the Ukrainian Catholic Church was revealed today. And it is the name of the fourth-youngest bishop in the whole of the Catholic Church: almost 40-year-old Sviatoslav Shevchuk.

The Ukrainian Byzantine Church has at least 4 million members in 18 dioceses, 5 archdioceses and 6 exarchates spread across the Ukraine, the United States, Canada, Poland, Australia, Argentina, Brazil, Germany, Norway, Finland, Sweden, France and the United Kingdom. Until February of this year, the helm of this Byzantine fold of the Catholic Church was in the hands of Cardinal Lubomyr Husar, who held the post since 2004. New Archbishop Shevchuk was  auxiliary bishop of the Argentine diocese from 2009 to early 2010, after which he oversaw that same diocese as apostolic administrator until his election to Kyiv-Halyč.

So another new player enters the field and, considering his young age, will continue to have an influence for decades to come.

EDIT: Two days after his enthronement, Archbishop Shevchuk said that he would ask Pope Benedict XVI to elevate the Ukrainain Church to a patriarchate, saying that “each developing church [becomes] a patriarchate, because a patriarchate is a period in the completion of the development of a church.” If the pope will grant this, remains to be seen. Possible opposition from the Orthodox Church is said to have been a reason for Pope John Paul II to not yet grant this wish, which was also expressed by Cardinal Husar.

Photo credit: REUTERS/Konstantin Chernichkin

A new chief shepherd for the Maronites

Across the world the one Catholic Church is present in various cultures and societies in different ways. Especially in the Middle East we find various Churches which are styled Catholic. Examples are the Armenian Catholic Church, the Coptic Catholic Church and the topic of this blog post, the Maronite Church. These are not separate churches, but churches in ‘full communion’ with Rome. This means what I wrote in my first sentences: rather than different churches assembled under the banner of Rome, they are embodiments of the one Catholic Church in various countries.

These churches, while being Catholic and thus part of the pope’s patrimony, are often led by patriarchs (although the exact title may differ per church). For almost 25 years the Maronite Church was led by Cardinal-Patriarch Nasrallah Pierre Sfeir. Although Maronite patriarchs usually stay on until death, 90-year-old Patriarch Sfeir’s resignation was accepted in late February.

In a conclave that is strikingly similar to the election of a new pope, the Maronite bishops came together in the Maronite heartland of Bkerké, Lebanon and, after five days, they elected Bishop Béchara Raï  of Jbeil as the new patriarch. Patriarch Raï will be formally enthroned on 25 March.

The Maronite Church traces its foundation to Saint John Maron, who established the Christian community at Bkerké in the 7th century. Today, the Maronite Church claims between 3 and 3.5 million faithful across the globe. It has 8 archdioceses, 15 dioceses and 2 patriarchal exarchates in Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, Cyprus, Israel, Egypt, Brazil, Mexico, the United States, Canada, Australia, Argentina and Jordan.

So history and numbers come together to assure the importance of this new appointment. Patriarch Raï is 71 and not unfamiliar with his patriarchal see of Antioch; he was auxiliary bishop there between 1986 and 1990 before being appointed to Jbeil. In Lebanon, the historic heartland of the Maronites, the patriarch is an important political player, although he is not involved in any local or national government himself, of course. Patriarch Raï is considered to be a moderate with good connections with all political players.

Photo credit: AP Photo/Bilal Hussein