The five cardinals created in Pope Francis’ fourth consistory, yesterday, received, in addition to their red birettas and a papal reminder to be servants rather than princes, a title church each. Even Cardinal Rosa Chavéz, not being an ordinary, received a title church rather than a deanery. This most likely since he has pastoral duties over a local flock rather than in the Roman curia, albeit under an archbishop with final authority.
Cardinal Gregorio Rosa Chavéz is also the only cardinal of the five to receive a new title church, that is a church that has never been a title church before. Santissimo Sacramento a Tor de’ Schiavi was built in the 1960s and consecrated in 1968.
The other four title churches all have a history – some long, some short – as cardinal title churches.
Cardinal Jean Zerbo is the cardinal-priest of Sant’Antonio da Padova a Via Tuscolana. Consecrated in 1965 and managed by the Rogationists, the church was held by one cardinal before. He was Brazilian Paulo Arns, who passed away in December and had this title since his creation in 1973.
Cardinal Juan Omella Omella has an ancient title. Santa Croce in Gerusalemme has been a title church since the 7th century. Its most recent cardinal-protector was Czech Miloslav Vlk, and others include four popes, as well as the first Dutch cardinal ever, Willem van Rossum.
Cardinal Anders Arborelius (pictured above) was given the church of Santa Maria degli Angeli, a 16th century church previously held by American Cardinal William Keeler. The church became a title church in 1565.
Cardinal Louis-Marie Ling Mangkhanekhoun, then, hold the title of San Silvestro in Capite. Its three previous protectors all hailed from the British Isles, the most recent of whom was Irish Cardinal Desmond Connell. Among its earlier cardinal-protectors was the later Pope Clement XI.
The title churches of cardinals serve to tie them into the church of Rome. Originally, the cardinals were the priests of Rome working with their bishop, the pope. As the Church grew and cardinals resided sometimes very far from Rome, they were still appointed to a church in the city, as if to say that that was their position from which to work with the Holy Father. In reality, a cardinal has little to no influence in his title church beyond the presence of their coat of arms after they have taken possession of the church. That possession is usually taken within about a year after a cardinal’s creation, although there are exceptions: Chicago’s Cardinal Cupich took possession of San Bartolomeo all’Isola a day after his creation, while Cardial Kutwa of Abidjan waited a full three years to make Sant’Emerenziana a Tor Fiorenza his own.
The new cardinals will be appointed to serve on the various congregations and councils in the Curia wiuthin the coming months.
Photo credit: CNS photo/Paul Haring