Pastoral exceptions and rules – support from abroad for the Woelki position

The group of German bishops, unofficially headed by Cologne’s Cardinal Woelki, who have questioned the bishops’ conference’s proposed pastoral outreach that would allow non-Catholics to receive Communion under certain circumstances – and whose position was recently confirmed and supported by the Holy See – have received further support from abroad.

In a recent interview on the occasion of the Ad Limina visit of the Nordic bishops – which I wrote about in the previous blog post – Cardinal Anders Arborelius, himself a former Lutheran and now, as a cardinal, a member of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity, was asked about the discussion in Germany. He answered:

kardinalen_2_thumb“It surprises me that the topic hasn’t been discussed that much. In Sweden, we have many mixed marriages. But most Catholics aren’t married to practicing Protestants. It is not an issue for us. Of course there are evangelical Christians who would like to receive Communion, but most are non-religious.

Of course, the ideal would be that the entire Church is able to arrive at a common solution, but it is difficult: in one country, the situation is thus, in the other it is different. Hopefully, we will one day be able to find a common solution with the entire Church.”

This is exactly what Cardinal Woelki has also said: it is not up to the German bishops alone to decide upon matters that are so essential to the Catholic faith and the understanding of the sacraments. Rather, the entire Church as a whole must decide upon it, if only to avoid the situation in which a regulation is valid in one place and not in another: the Church is not a national Church, but universal, and her sacraments and faith are not bound by borders.

Μητροπολίτης-Γερμανίας-κ.κ.Αυγουστίνος-300x169Greek-Orthodox Metropolitan Augoustinos, who hosted Cardinal Woelki in Bonn for the annual plenary meeting of the Greek-Orthodox Church in Germany, expressed himself in similar words after indicating that his church is also following the debate closely. He referred to the Orthodox principle of Oikonomia, which indicates that a regulation can be ignored or a rule broken when it serves the salvation of the person involved. But he then quoted Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I, saying: “As soon as one defines the conditions under which Oikonomia can be applied, Oikonomia itself becomes a rule or regulation.”

Cardinal Woelki has spoken about the unwritten rule that a non-Catholic presenting himself for Communion is not turned away: a pastoral exception to the rule which, however, must not be made into a rule itself. That would “endanger the values that must be preserved with special care”. These values would include the Catholic (and, for that matter, Orthodox) doctrine about the Eucharist and Communion.

 

In an interview for Katholisch.de, Bishop Stefan Oster of Passau also spoke about this point in the debate. He was also one of the seven signatories of the letter to Rome which questioned if the pastoral outreach did not transcend the authority of the German bishops. The bishop explains:

7I2A1125_0“It is right that we do not turn anyone away from the Communion bench. At that moment no judgement can be made about the discernment of conscience of the individual receiving. I can’t ‘expose’ anyone then. But when we take our understanding of the Eucharist seriously, there can be no superficial practice of giving Communion to just anyone. Therefore, as the priest giving Communion, I am obliged to offer people, at a suitable occasion, personal and spiritual guidance – and explain our understanding of the Eucharist more deeply. And yes, the praxis of individual pastoral care can indeed lead to singular and temporary situations. But in my opinion an official regulation of such exceptions can make it even more likely for such exceptions to become the rule. The current debate already shows that. It is basically less about the “serious spiritual need of individuals,” and more about the interdenominational marriages in general.”

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For Pallium Day 2016, a small crop

palliumToday, the feast of Saints Peter and Paul, Pope Francis will once again be giving out he pallia to the world’s new metropolitan archbishops (or to their representatives). The actual imposition of the woolen band signifying the bond with the Rome and the world Church will take place in the archdioceses at a date of the prelates’ own choosing, per the changes introduced last year.

There are 27 new archbishops in this round, all appointed between 29 June 2015 and today. Here’s the list:

  1. Archbishop Felipe Accrocca, Benevento, Italy
  2. Archbishop-elect Basilio Athai, Taunggyi, Myanmar
  3. Archbishop Théophile Barakat, Homs (Syriac), Syria
  4. Archbishop Luiz Cabrera Herrera, Guayaquil, Ecuador
  5. Archbishop-elect Christopher Cardone, Honiara, Solomon Islands
  6. Archbishop Jozef De Kesel, Mechelen-Brussel, Belgium
  7. Archbishop Zanoni Demettino Castro, Feira de Santana, Brazil
  8. Juan Cardinal García Rodríguez, La Habana, Cuba
  9. Archbishop Bernard Hebda, Saint Paul and Minneapolis, United States
  10. Archbishop Fidel Herráez Vegas, Burgos, Spain
  11. Archbishop-elect Roger Houngbédji, Cotonou, Benin
  12. Archbishop Dominique Lebrun, Rouen, France
  13. Archbishop Salvatore Ligorio, Potenza-Muro Lucano-Marsico Nuovo, Italy
  14. Archbishop Corrado Lorefice, Palermo, Italy
  15. Archbishop Francisco Moreno Barrón, Tijuana, Mexico
  16. Archbishop Darci Nicioli, Diamantina, Brazil
  17. Archbishop Juan Omella Omella, Barcelona, Spain
  18. Archbishop Roque Paloschi, Porto Velho, Brazil
  19. Archbishop Marcos Perez Caicedo, Cuenca, Ecuador
  20. Archbishop Lorenzo Piretto, Izmir, Turkey
  21. Archbishop Eugeniusz Popowicz, Przemysl-Warszawa (Ukrainain), Poland
  22. Archbishop Ruy Rendón Leal, Hermosillo, Mexico
  23. Archbishop Kenneth Richards, Kingston in Jamaica
  24. Archbishop Adam Szal, Przemysl, Poland
  25. Archbishop Lauro Tisi, Trento, Italy
  26. Archbishop Rodolfo Weber, Passo Fundo, Brazil
  27. Archbishop Matteo Zuppi, Bologna, Italy

Most of the archbishops will still come to Rome, even if there is no official imposition taking place. Among these is Mechelen-Brussels’ Jozef De Kesel, the only archbishop from northwestern Europe in this year’s relatively small crop.

In his homily on last year’s feast, Pope Francis entrusted the archbishops  with a call to prayer, faith and witness:

“The Church wants you to be men of prayer, masters of prayer; that you may teach the people entrusted to your care that liberation from all forms of imprisonment is uniquely God’s work and the fruit of prayer; that God sends his angel at the opportune time in order to save us from the many forms of slavery and countless chains of worldliness. For those most in need, may you also be angels and messengers of charity!

The Church desires you to be men of faith, masters of faith, who can teach the faithful to not be frightened of the many Herods who inflict on them persecution with every kind of cross. No Herod is able to banish the light of hope, of faith, or of charity in the one who believes in Christ!

The Church wants you to be men of witness. Saint Francis used to tell his brothers: “Preach the Gospel always, and if necessary, use words!” (cf. Franciscan sources, 43). There is no witness without a coherent lifestyle! Today there is no great need for masters, but for courageous witnesses, who are convinced and convincing; witnesses who are not ashamed of the Name of Christ and of His Cross; not before the roaring lions, nor before the powers of this world. And this follows the example of Peter and Paul and so many other witnesses along the course of the Church’s history, witnesses who, yet belonging to different Christian confessions, have contributed to demonstrating and bringing growth to the one Body of Christ. I am pleased to emphasize this, and am always pleased to do so, in the presence of the Delegation of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, sent by my beloved brother Bartholomew I.

This is not so straightforward: because the most effective and authentic witness is one that does not contradict, by behaviour and lifestyle, what is preached with the word and taught to others!

Teach prayer by praying, announce the faith by believing; offer witness by living!”