On red hat day, a small but historic change in the college

cardinalsToday marks not only Pope Francis’ fifth red hat day, with the ceremonies to begin at 4 pm Roman time, but also an historical change in the composition of the College of Cardinals, albeit one with, on first glance, little effect on the day to day affairs of the Church.

The College of Cardinals is divided into three ranks: the cardinal-deacons, cardinal-priests and cardinal-bishops. Of these, the cardinal-bishops are of the highest rank and also the smallest of the three groups. Traditionally, the cardinal-bishops were the bishops of the seven* suburbicarian sees, the ancient dioceses surrounding Rome. Before 1962, these cardinals were the actual bishops of the suburbicarian sees, but in that year the position became titular and the dioceses received bishops who had the time to actual manage them.

The cardinal-bishops remained the highest order of cardinals, however, and from their ranks the dean and vice-dean of the entire College were chosen. In times of a sede vacante this becomes most visible, as the dean has the duty of calling the other cardinals to Rome and organising the conclave to elect a new pope. Today, the Dean of the College of Cardinals is the cardinal-bishop of Albano and Ostia, Cardinal Angelo Sodano**.

Le-cardinal-Bechara-Boutros-Rai-aimerait-organiser-avec-autres-responsables-chretiens-sommet-toutes-eglises-Orient_0_1400_1345
Maronite Patriarch Béchara Boutros Raï, an eastern cardinal-bishop

In 1965, the order of cardinal-bishops was expanded by the addition of those patriarchs of eastern Churches in union with Rome who were made cardinals. There are three of these today: the Coptic patriarch and the current and previous Maronite patriarchs. After today’s consistory, they will be joined by the Chaldean patriarch. These eastern cardinal-bishops, while equal in rank to the others, receive no suburbicarian see and do not participate in the election of dean and vice-dean (they are also unable to be elected themselves)***.

Over the centuries, but especially in the last decades, the College of Cardinals has continuously grown in size. For example, about a century ago, the conclave that elected Pope Benedict XV consisted of 57 cardinals (a further 8 were unable to take part), while following today’s consistory, there will be 125 electors. This growth took part solely in the ranks of the cardinal-deacons and the cardinal-priests. The cardinal-bishops steadfastly remained limited to the holders of the suburbicarian sees. To remedy that, Pope Francis decided to select four cardinals to be elevated to the rank of cardinal-bishops. They keep their current title churches and duties, but it may be assumed that they are now first in line to be moved to a suburbicarian see when one falls vacant. The four new cardinal-bishops are full members of the highest section of the hierarchy in all respects, and can vote for and be elected as dean or vice-dean. Canons 350 and 352 of the Code of Canon Law limit this to the holders of the suburbicarian sees, but that limitation has been waived for the new cardinal-bishops.

For this honour, which is simultaneously an obligation, Pope Francis has selected four cardinals from three different countries, who all work in the Curia in Rome.

  1. parolinPietro Cardinal Parolin, Secretary of State, 63. Perhaps the most important rising star in Francis’ papacy. A trained diplomat, the erstwhile Nuncio to Venezuela was called to Rome in 2013 to succeed Cardinal Bertone as Secretary of State. In 2014 he was made a cardinal with the title of Santi Simone e Giuda Taddeo a Torre Angela, and was added to the Council of Cardinals, the C9, that assists the pope in reforming the Curia, about a year after that group was established.
  2. LeonardoSandriLeonardo Cardinal Sandri, Prefect of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches, 74. Argentinean like the pope, Cardinal Sandri is also a diplomat, having served as Nuncio to Venezuela and Mexico before joining the Secretariat of State as Substitute for General Affairs in 2000. He became Prefect of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches in 2007 and was made a cardinal in that same year. Last month, he was one of the cardinal-deacons who were promoted to cardinal-priests. He maintained is title of Santi Biagio e Carlo ai Catinari, as he does with his elevation to cardinal-bishop.
  3. Marc OuelletMarc Cardinal Ouellet, Prefect of the Congregation for Bishops, 74. Secretary of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity in 2001 and 2002, the Canadian prelate returned home as archbishop of Québec, and was made a cardinal in 2003, with Santa Maria in Traspontina as his title church. Since 2010 he serves as prefect of the congregation which controls the appointing of bishops around the world.
  4. cardinalefiloni-kBED-U1101609431438Nc-1024x576@LaStampa.it-R65On4HldM4ptvJ2jZdZVeM-568x320@LaStampa.itFernando Cardinal Filoni, Prefect of the Congregation for the Evangelisation of Peoples, 72. Like two of his three classmates a diplomat, having served as Nuncio in Jordan, Iraq and the Philippines. Like Cardinal Sandri, he also served as Substitute for General Affairs in the Secretariat of State, from 2007 to 2011. In that latter year he became Prefect of the Congregation for the Evangelisation of Peoples, and was made a cardinal in 2012. He holds the title of Nostra Signora do Coromoto in San Giovanni di Dio.

In paractice these changes mean that Cardinals Parolin, Sandri, Ouellet and Filoni are among the most significant collaborators of the pope, and when the time for a conclave comes, it will be Cardinal Parolin who will oversee the proceedings: he will take on those duties that Cardinal Sodano is unable to because of his age.

With these elevations and the creation of fourteen new cardinals today, the makeup of the entire College of Cardinals is listed below. In bold are those cardinals under the age of 80, who can vote in a conclave. Their duties and offices are summarised here. In many cases, especially for cardinals working in the curia, they have or had several functions. I have chosen to list only their most prominent or best-known roles.

Cardinal-Bishops

  1. Angelo Cardinal Sodano: Dean of the College of Cardinals, Secretary of State emeritus
  2. Giovanni Battista Cardinal Re: Vice-Dean of the College of Cardinals, Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for Bishops
  3. Roger Cardinal Etchegaray: President emeritus of the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace
  4. Francis Cardinal Arinze: Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments
  5. Tarcisio Cardinal Bertone: Secretary of State emeritus
  6. José Cardinal Saraiva Martins: Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints
  7. Pietro Cardinal Parolin: Secretary of State
  8. Leonardo Cardinal Sandri: Prefect of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches
  9. Marc Cardinal Ouellet: Prefect of the Congregation for Bishops
  10. Fernando Cardinal Filoni: Prefect of the Congregation for the Evangelisation of Peoples
  11. Nasrallah Pierre Cardinal Sfeir: Patriarch emeritus of Antioch (Maronite Rite)
  12. Antonios Cardinal Naguib: Patriarch emeritus of Alexandria (Coptic Rite)
  13. Béchara Pierre Cardinal Raï: Patriarch of Antioch (Maronite Rite)
  14. Louis Raphaël I Cardinal Sako: Patriarch of Babylon (Chaldean Rite)

Cardinal-Priests

  1. Michael Michai Cardinal Kitbunchu: Archbishop emeritus of Bangkok
  2. Alexandre Cardinal do Nascimento: Archbishop emeritus of Luanda
  3. Godfried Cardinal Danneels: Archbishop emeritus of Mechelen-Brussel
  4. Thomas Stafford Cardinal Williams: Archbishop emeritus of Wellington
  5. Henryk Roman Cardinal Gulbinowicz: Archbishop emeritus of Wroclaw
  6. Jozef Cardinal Tomko: Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for the Evangelisation of Peoples
  7. Paul Cardinal Poupard: President emeritus of the Pontifical Council for Culture, President emeritus of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue
  8. Friedrich Cardinal Wetter: Archbishop emeritus of München und Freising
  9. Adrianus Johannes Cardinal Simonis: Archbishop emeritus of Utrecht
  10. Eduardo Cardinal Martínez Somalo: Prefect emeritus of the Consecration for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life
  11. Achille Cardinal Silvestrini: Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches
  12. José Freire Cardinal Falcão: Archbishop emeritus of Brasília
  13. Alexandre José María Cardinal dos Santos: Archbishop emeritus of Maputo
  14. Christian Wiyghan Cardinal Tumi: Archbishop emeritus of Douala
  15. Edward Idris Cardinal Cassidy: President emeritus of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity
  16. Nicolás de Jesús Cardinal López Rodríguez: Archbishop emeritus of Santo Domingo
  17. Roger Michael Cardinal Mahony: Archbishop emeritus of Los Angeles
  18. Camillo Cardinal Ruini: Vicar General emeritus for the Vicariate of Rome, Archpriest emeritus of S. John Lateran
  19. Henri Cardinal Schwery: Bishop emeritus of Sion
  20. Jaime Lucas Cardinal Ortega y Alamino: Archbishop emeritus of Havana
  21. Julius Riyadi Cardinal Darmaatmadja: Archbishop emeritus of Jakarta
  22. Emmanuel Cardinal Wamala: Archbishop emeritus of Kampala
  23. Adam Joseph Cardinal Maida: Archbishop emeritus of Detroit
  24. Vinko Cardinal Puljic: Archbihsop of Vrhbosna
  25. Juan Cardinal Sandoval Íñiguez: Archbihsop emeritus of Guadalajara
  26. Jorge Arturo Cardinal Medina Estévez: Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments
  27. James Francis Cardinal Stafford: Archbishop emeritus of Denver
  28. Salvatore Cardinal De Giorgi: Archbishop emeritus of Palermo
  29. Serafim Fernandes Cardinal de Araújo: Archbishop emeritus of Belo Horizonte
  30. Antonio María Cardinal Rouco Varela: Archbishop emeritus of Madrid
  31. Polycarp Cardinal Pengo: Archbishop of Dar-es-Salaam
  32. Christoph Cardinal Schönborn: Archbishop of Vienna
  33. Norberto Cardinal Rivera Carrera: Archbishop emeritus of Mexico
  34. Marian Cardinal Jaworski: Archbishop emeritus of Lviv
  35. Janis Cardinal Pujats: Archbishop emeritus of Riga
  36. Agostino Cardinal Cacciavillan: President emeritus of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See
  37. Sergio Cardinal Sebastiani: President emeritus of the Prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See
  38. Zenon Cardinal Grocholewski: Prefect of the Congregation for Catholic Education
  39. Crescenzio Cardinal Sepe: Archbishop of Naples
  40. Walter Cardinal Kasper: President emeritus of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity
  41. Geraldo Majella Cardinal Agnelo: Archbishop emeritus of São Salvador de Bahia
  42. Pedro Cardinal Rubiano Sáenz: Archbishop emeritus of Bogotá
  43. Theodore Edgar Cardinal McCarrick: Archbishop emeritus of Washington
  44. Audrys Juozas Cardinal Backis: Archbishop emeritus of Vilnius
  45. Francisco Javier Cardinal Errázuriz Ossa: Archbishop emeritus of Santiago de Chile
  46. Wilfrid Fox Cardinal Napier: Archbishop of Durban
  47. Óscar Andrés Cardinal Rodríguez Maradiaga: Archbishop of Tegucigalpa and Coordinator of the Council of Cardinals
  48. Juan Luis Cardinal Cipriani Thorne: Archbishop of Lima
  49. Francisco Cardinal Álvarez Martínez: Archbishop emeritus of Toledo
  50. Cláudio Cardinal Hummes: Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for Clergy
  51. Severino Cardinal Poletto: Archbishop emeritus of Torino
  52. Jean-Louis Cardinal Tauran: President of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue and Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church
  53. Julián Cardinal Herranz Casado: President emeritus of the Pontifical Council for Legislative Texts
  54. Javier Cardinal Lozano Barragán: President emeritus of the Pontifical Council for Pastoral Assistance to Health Care Workers
  55. Angelo Cardinal Scola: Archbishop emeritus of Milan
  56. Anthony Olubunmi Cardinal Okogie: Archbishop emeritus of Lagos
  57. Gabriel Cardinal Zubier Wako: Archbishop emeritus of Khartoum
  58. Carlos Cardinal Amigo Vallejo: Archbihsop emeritus of Sevilla
  59. Justin Francis Cardinal Rigali: Archbishop emeritus of Philadelphia
  60. Eusébio Oscar Cardinal Scheid: Archbishop emeritus of Rio de Janeiro
  61. Ennio Cardinal Antonelli: President emeritus of the Pontifical Council for the Family
  62. Peter Kodwo Appiah Cardinal Turkson: Prefect of the Dicastery for Promoting Integral Human Development
  63. Telesphore Placidus Cardinal Toppo: Archbishop emeritus of Ranchi
  64. George Cardinal Pell: Prefect of the Secretariat for the Economy
  65. Josip Cardinal Bozanic: Archbishop of Zagreb
  66. Jean-Baptise Cardinal Pham Minh Man: Archbishop emeritus of Ho Chi Minh City
  67. Philipp Christian Igance Marie Cardinal Barbarin: Archbishop of Lyon
  68. Péter Cardinal Erdö: Archbishop of Esztergom-Budapest
  69. William Joseph Cardinal Levada: Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith
  70. Franc Cardinal Rode: Prefect emeritus of the Consecration for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life
  71. Agostino Cardinal Vallini: Pontifical Legate for the Basilicas of St. Francis and St. Mary of the Angels in Assisi
  72. Jorge Liberato Cardinal Urosa Savino: Archbishop of Caracas
  73. Gaudencio Borbon Cardinal Rosales: Archbishop emeritus of Manila
  74. Jean-Pierre Bernard Cardinal Ricard: Archbishop of Bordeaux
  75. Antonio Cardinal Cañizares Llovera: Archbishop of Valencia
  76. Nicholas Cardinal Cheong Jin-suk: Archbishop emeritus of Seoul
  77. Seán Patrick Cardinal O’Malley: Archbishop of Boston
  78. Stanislaw Cardinal DziwiszArchbishop emeritus of Kraków
  79. Joseph Cardinal Zen Ze-kiun: Bishop emeritus of Hong Kong
  80. Albert Cardinal Vanhoye: Secretary emeritus of the Pontifical Biblical Commission
  81. Giovanni Cardinal Lajolo: President emeritus of the Governorate of the Vatican City State and President emeritus of the Pontifical Commission for the Vatican City State
  82. Paul Josef Cardinal Cordes: President emeritus of the Pontifical Council “Cor Unum”
  83. Angelo Cardinal Comastri: Archpriest of St. Peter and Vicar General for the Vatican City State
  84. Stanislaw Cardinal Rylko: Archpries of St. Mary Major
  85. Raffaele Cardinal Farina: Librarian emeritus of the Vatican Apostolic Library and Archivist emeritus of the Vatican Secret Archives
  86. Seán Baptist Cardinal Brady: Archbishop emeritus of Armagh
  87. Lluís Cardinal Martinez Sistach: Archbishop emeritus of Barcelona
  88. André Armand Cardinal Vingt-Trois: Archbishop emeritus of Paris
  89. Angelo Cardinal Bagnasco: Archbishop of Genova
  90. Théodore-Adrien Cardinal Sarr: Archbishop emeritus of Dakar
  91. Oswald Cardinal Gracias: Archbishop of Bombay
  92. Francisco Cardinal Robles Ortega: Archbishop of Guadalajara
  93. Daniel Nicholas Cardinal DiNardo: Archbishop of Galveston-Houston
  94. Odilo Pedro Cardinal Scherer: Archbishop of São Paulo
  95. John Cardinal Njue: Archbishop of Nairobi
  96. Estanislao Esteban Cardinal Karlic: Archbishop emeritus of Paraná
  97. Raúl Eduardo Cardinal Vela Chiriboga: Archbishop emeritus of Quito
  98. Laurent Cardinal Monsengwo Pasinya: Archbishop of Kinshasa
  99. Paolo Cardinal Romeo: Archbishop emeritus of Palermo
  100. Donald William Cardinal Wuerl: Archbishop of Washington
  101. Raymundo Damasceno Cardinal Assis: Archbishop emeritus of Aparecida
  102. Kazimierz Cardinal Nycz: Archbishop of Warszawa
  103. Albert Malcolm Ranjith Cardinal Patabendige Don: Archbishop of Colombo
  104. Reinhard Cardinal Marx: Archbishop of München und Freising
  105. José Manuel Cardinal Estepa Llaurens: Military Ordinary emeritus of Spain
  106. George Cardinal Alencherry: Major Archbishop of Ernakulam-Angamaly (Syro-Malabar Rite)
  107. Thomas Christopher Cardinal Collins: Archbishop of Toronto
  108. Dominik Cardinal Duka: Archbishop of Prague
  109. Willem Jacobus Cardinal Eijk: Archbishop of Utrecht
  110. Giuseppe Cardinal Betori: Archbishop of Firenze
  111. Timothy Michael Cardinal Dolan: Archbishop of New York
  112. Rainer Maria Cardinal Woelki: Archbishop of Köln
  113. John Cardinal Tong Hon: Bishop emeritus of Hong Kong
  114. Lucian Cardinal Muresan: Major Archbishop of Fagaras si Alba Iulia (Romanian Rite)
  115. Baselios Cleemis Cardinal Thottunkal: Major Archbishop of Trivandrum (Syro-Malankar Rite)
  116. John Olorunfemi Cardinal Onaiyekan: Archbishop of Abuja
  117. Jesús Rubén Cardinal Salazar Gómez: Archbishop of Bogotá
  118. Luis Antonio Gokim Cardinal Tagle: Archbishop of Manila
  119. Vincent Gerard Cardinal Nichols: Archbishop of Westminster
  120. Leopoldo José Cardinal Brenes Solórzano: Archbishop of Managua
  121. Gérald Cyprien Cardinal Lacroix: Archbishop of Québec
  122. Jean-Pierre Cardinal Kutwa: Archbishop of Abidjan
  123. Orani João Cardinal Tempesta: Archbishop of Rio de Janeiro
  124. Gualtiero Cardinal Bassetti: Archbishop of Perugia-Città della Pieve
  125. Mario Aurelio Cardinal Poli: Archbishop of Buenos Aires
  126. Andrew Cardinal Yeom Soo-jung: Archbishop of Seoul
  127. Ricardo Cardinal Ezzati Andrello: Archbishop of Santiago de Chile
  128. Philippe Nakellentuba Cardinal Ouédraogo: Archbishop of Ouagadougou
  129. Orlando Beltran Cardinal Quevedo: Archbishop of Cotabato
  130. Chibly Cardinal Langlois: Bishop of Les Cayes
  131. Fernando Cardinal Sebastián Aguilar: Archbishop emeritus of Pamplona y Tudela
  132. Kelvin Edward Cardinal Felix: Archbishop emeritus of Castries
  133. Manuel José Cardinal Macário do Nascimento Clemente: Patriarch of Lissabon
  134. Berhaneyesus Demerew Cardinal Souraphiel: Metropolitan of Addis Abeba (Ethiopic Rite)
  135. John Atcherley Cardinal Dew: Archbishop of Wellington
  136. Edoardo Cardinal Menichelli: Archbishop emeritus of Ancona-Osimo
  137. Pierre Cardinal Nguyen Van Nhon: Archbishop of Hanoi
  138. Alberto Cardinal Suárez Inda: Archbishop emeritus of Morelia
  139. Charles Maung Cardinal Bo: Archbishop of Yangon
  140. Francis Xavier Kriengsak Cardinal Kovithavanij: Archbishop of Bangkok
  141. Francesco Cardinal Montenegro: Archbishop of Agrigento
  142. Daniel Fernando Cardinal Sturla Berhouet: Archbishop of Montevideo
  143. Ricardo Cardinal Blázquez Pérez: Archbishop of Valladolid
  144. José Luis Cardinal Lacunza Maestrojuán: Bishop of David
  145. Arlindo Cardinal Gomes Furtado: Bishop of Santiago de Cabo Verde
  146. Soane Patita Cardinal Mafi: Bishop of Tonga
  147. José de Jesús Cardinal Pimiento Rodriguez: Archbishop emeritus of Manizales
  148. Luis Héctor Cardinal Villalba: Archbishop emeritus of Tucumán
  149. Júlio Duarte Cardinal Langa: Bishop emeritus of Xai-Xai
  150. Dieudonné Cardinal Nzapalainga: Archbishop of Bangui
  151. Carlos Cardinal Osoro Sierra: Archbishop of Madrid
  152. Sérgio Cardinal da Rocha: Archbishop of Brasília
  153. Blase Joseph Cardinal Cupich: Archbishop of Chicago
  154. Patrick Cardinal D’Rozario: Archbishop of Dhaka
  155. Baltazar Enrique Cardinal Porras Cardozo: Archbishop of Mérida
  156. Jozef Cardinal De Kesel: Archbishop of Mechelen-Brussel
  157. Maurice Cardinal Piat: Bishop of Port-Louis
  158. Carlos Cardinal Aguiar Retes: Archbishop of Mexico
  159. John Cardinal Ribat: Archbishop of Port Moresby
  160. Joseph William Cardinal Tobin: Archbishop of Newark
  161. Anthony Soter Cardinal Fernandez: Archbishop emeritus of Kuala Lumpur
  162. Renato Cardinal Corti: Bishop emeritus of Novara
  163. Sebastian Koto Cardinal Khoarai: Bishop emeritus of Mohale’s Hoek
  164. Jean Cardinal Zerbo: Archbishop of Bamako
  165. Juan José Cardinal Omella Omella: Archbishop of Barcelona
  166. Anders Cardinal Arborelius: Bishop of Stockholm
  167. Lousi-Marie Cardinal Ling Mangkhanekhoun: Vicar Apostolic of Vientiane
  168. Gregorio Cardinal Rosa Chávez: Auxiliary Bishop of San Salvador
  169. Joseph Cardinal Coutts: Archbishop of Karachi
  170. António Augusto Cardinal dos Santos Marto: Bishop of Leiria-Fátima
  171. Pedro Ricardo Cardinal Barreto Jimeno: Archbishop of Huancayo
  172. Désiré Cardinal Tsarahazana: Archbishop of Toamasina
  173. Giuseppe Cardinal Petrocchi: Archbishop of L’Aquila
  174. Thomas Aquino Manyo Cardinal Maeda: Archbishop of Osaka
  175. Sergio Cardinal Obeso Rivera: Archbishop emeritus of Jalapa
  176. Toribio Cardinal Ticona Porco: Prelate emeritus of Corocoro

Cardinal-Deacons

  1. Renato Cardinal Martino: President emeritus of the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace and President emeritus of the Pontifical Council for Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerant People
  2. Angelo Cardinal Amato: Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints
  3. Robert Cardinal Sarah: Prefect of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments
  4. Francesco Cardinal Monterisi: Archpriest emeritus of St. Paul Outside-the-Walls
  5. Raymond Leo Cardinal Burke: Patron of the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta
  6. Kurt Cardinal Koch: President of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity
  7. Paolo Cardinal Sardi: Patron emeritus of the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta
  8. Mauro Cardinal Piacenza: Major Penitentiary of the Apostolic Penitentiary
  9. Gianfranco Cardinal Ravasi: President of the Pontifical Council for Culture
  10. Elio Cardinal Sgreccia: President emeritus of the Pontifical Academy for Life
  11. Walter Cardinal Brandmüller: President emeritus of the Pontifical Committee of Historical Sciences
  12. Manuel Cardinal Monteiro de Castro: Major Penitentiary emeritus of the Apostolic Penitentiary
  13. Santos Cardinal Abril y Castelló: Archpriest emeritus of St. Mary Major
  14. Antonio Maria Cardinal Vegliò: President emeritus of the Pontifical Council for Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerant People
  15. Giuseppe Cardinal Bertello: President of the Governorate of the Vatican City State and President of the Pontifical Commission for the Vatican City State
  16. Francesco Cardinal Coccopalmerio: President emeritus of the Pontifical Council for Legislative Texts
  17. João Cardinal Bráz de Aviz: Prefect of the Consecration for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life
  18. Edwin Frederick Cardinal O’Brien: Grand Master of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepuclhre of Jerusalem
  19. Domenico Cardinal Calcagno: President emeritus of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See
  20. Giuseppe Cardinal Versaldi: Prefect of the Congregation for Catholic Education
  21. Prosper Cardinal Grech: Priest of the Archdiocese of Malta
  22. James Michael Cardinal Harvey: Archpriest of St. Paul-Outside-the-Walls
  23. Lorenzo Cardinal Baldisseri: Secretary General of the Synod of Bishops
  24. Gerhard Ludwig Cardinal Müller: Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith
  25. Beniamino Cardinal Stella: Prefect of the Congregation for Clergy
  26. Dominique Francois Joseph Cardinal Mamberti: Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura
  27. Luigi Cardinal De Magistris: Major Pro-Penitentiary emeritus
  28. Karl-Josef Cardinal Rauber: Apostolic Nuncio emeritus to Belgium and Luxembourg
  29. Mario Cardinal Zenari: Apostolic Nuncio to Syria
  30. Kevin Joseph Cardinal Farrell: Prefect of the Dicastery for Laity, Family and Life
  31. Ernest Cardinal Simoni: Priest of the Diocese of Shkodrë-Pult
  32. Luis Francisco Cardinal Ladaria Ferrer: Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith
  33. Angelo Cardinal De Donatis: Archpriest of St. John Lateran and Vicar General for the Vicariate of Rome
  34. Giovanni Angelo Cardinal Becciu: Prefect of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints
  35. Konrad Cardinal Krajewski: Almoner of His Holiness
  36. Aquilino Cardinal Bocos Merino: Superior General emeritus of the Missionary Sons of the Immaculate Heart of Mary

*Over time, there have been some mergers and splits among these seven sees, but today they are: Albano, Frascati, Ostia, Palestrina, Porto-Santa Rufina, Sabina-Poggio Mirteto and Velletri-Segni.

*The title of Ostia is given to the Dean in addition to his own titular diocese. It has no bishop of its own and it is governed by the vicar-general for the Vicariate of Rome, currently Archbishop Angelo De Donatis, who himself will be made a cardinal today.

***This may be one of the reasons for today’s changes. If a conclave were to be held now, its proceedings would be overseen by Maronite Patriarch Béchara Cardinal Raï, himself not a Roman prelate. This would be so because the dean, at 90, is too old to participate in a conclave and his duties would then automatically fall to the senior cardinal-bishop who is also an elector. Cardinal Raï is the sole elector among the cardinal-bishops today.

Photo credit: [2] Alessia GIULIANI/CPP/CIRIC, [4] CNS/Paul Haring, [5] AP Photo/Andrew Medichini

 

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Class V – Classic Francis for the new cardinal intake

Every year a new class of cardinals, that seems to be the tradition under Pope Francis. For this year, he calls in fourteen new members of the College, eleven of whom are able to vote in a conclave to elect his successor. This would bring the total number of electors up to 126, were it not for the ageing out of Cardinal Angelo Amato three weeks before the consistory, scheduled for 29 June. Still, the number of electors will be 5 above the maximum number established by soon-to-be Saint Paul VI, but, as noted before, this is a flexible rule that popes are free to break. Barring any deaths, the maximum number of 120 cardinal electors will again be reached by 31 July 2019.

The 2018 class of cardinals, as said, consists of 14 members from 11 different countries, all of which have had cardinals before. This may make the list less exotic than previous editions, although some of the new cardinals come from dioceses or curial departments which have never had red hats before.

Three of the new cardinals work in the curia, while the rest comes from dioceses (and one religious order) across the world. Three come from Italy, two from Spain, and one each from Iraq, Poland, Pakistan, Portugal, Peru, Madagascar, Japan, Mexico and Bolivia.

The list:

LouisSakoLouis Raphael I Cardinal Sako, Cardinal-Bishop, Patriach of Babylon (Chaldean), Iraq. The second Patriarch of Babylon to be made a cardinal, and also the second Iraqi prelate. 69-year-old Patriarch Sako was appointed to Babylon and the leadership of the Chaldean Church in 2013. Before that he was the Metropolitan Archbishop of Kirkuk. As an eastern Patriarch, Cardinal Sako will automatically be a cardinal-bishop, but as a member of a non-Roman Catholic Church, albeit one in union with Rome, he will not be given a title church.

Prefecto_Mons._LadariaLuis Francisco Cardinal Ferrer, Cardinal-Deacon, Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. Ever since the popes ceased to head the chief office in the curia themselves, its prefects have been made cardinals. 74-year-old Spanish Jesuit Ladaria Ferrer, formerly the second in command under Cardinal Müller, receives the red hat a year after being made prefect.

de-donatis-1024x693Angelo Cardinal de Donatis, Cardinal-Priest, Vicar General of Rome. Another almost automatic red hat, even under Pope Francis, goes to the vicar general for the vicariate of Rome. The 64-year-old is the second cardinal in the Roman archdiocese, joining Cardinal Angelo Comastri, the vicar general for Vatican City.

 

Giovanni_Angelo_Becciu_in_2013Giovanni Angelo Cardinal Becciu, Cardinal-Deacon, Substitute of the Secretariat of State. All of Cardinal-elect Becciu’s predecessors have been made cardinals, but none while serving as subsistutes in the Secretariat of State. The general expectation is that the 69-year-old Italian will also leave that office soon: he may well suceed Cardinal Angelo Amato, who will turn 80 in June, at the head of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints.

z15177603MKonrad Cardinal Krajewski, Cardinal-Deacon, Almoner of the Office of Papal Charities. Without doubt the highest-regarded curial official in Francis’ Rome, the 54-year-old Polish almoner runs the charitable initiatives on behalf of the pope in Rome. Under his responsibility, showers and barber facilities for homeless have been installed in the colonnades of St. Peter’s Square, to name but one example. Cardinal-elect Krajewski is the first papal almoner to be made a cardinal.

JosephCouttsJoseph Cardinal Coutts, Cardinal-Priest, Archbishop of Karachi, Pakistan. The second Pakistani cardinal, and the first native of that country to receive the red hat, ever. Cardinal-elect Coutts, 72,  has been in the country’s southern metropolis since 2012, following stints in the dioceses of Hyderabad and Faisalabad. His election must be seen in the first place as a sign of support for the small Catholic presence in a largely Muslim country.

antonio_santos_martoAntónio Augusto Cardinal dos Santos Marto, Cardinal-Priest, Bishop of Leiria-Fátima, Portugal. It is not the first time that Francis creates a cardinal in a country he has previously visited. The bishop of the diocese which includes the major Marian shrine of Portugal and beyond hosted the pope in May of 2017. The 71-year cardinal-elect also serves as vice-president of the Portuguese bishops’ conference and becomes that country’s second cardinal.

Arzobispo de Huancayo, Monseñor Pedro Barreto Jimeno, SJ 3Pedro Ricardo Cardinal Barreto Jimeno, Cardinal-Priest, Archbishop of Huancayo, Peru. In January of this year, Pope Francis visited Peru, so that country also gets a cardinal. The 74-year-old archbishop of Huancayo joins the archbishop of the nation’s capital and is, like him, close to retirement. The cardinal-elect is the second Jesuit to be named in the current batch.

zoky dezyDésiré Cardinal Tsarahazana, Cardinal-Priest, Archbishop of Toamasina, Madagascar. After eight years, Madagascar gets a cardinal again, although he is not the archbishop of the capital, Antananarivo. Instead, tnhe 63-year-old cardinal-designate comes from the coastal see of Toamasina. He is the first archbishop of that see, after is was raised to that status in 2010, and he also serves as president of the Malagassy bishops’ conference.

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Giuseppe Cardinal Petrocchi, Cardinal-Priest, Archbishop of L’Aquila, Italy. In Italy’s mountaineous and earthquake-stricken region of L’Aquila since 2013, the 69-year-old cardinal-elect has been unavoidably involved with missions of charity and works of mercy. The first cardinal from that see, the appointment once more overlooks such ‘autmoatic’ cardinalatial sees like Venice, Turin and Milan.

1357021978Thomas Aquino Manyo Cardinal Maeda, Cardinal-Priest, Archbishop of Osaka, Japan. Japan was long overdue for a cardinal, and this appointment as not as unique as may be expected. Previous Japanese cardinals came from Tokyo twice, but also one time each from Nagasaki and Osaka. The appointment of the 69-year-old archbishop, who has been in office since 2014, is once more a sign of support for a small Asian Catholic congregation.

sergiobesorivera080414.04_1.bigSergio Cardinal Obeso Rivera, Cardinal-Priest, Archbishop emeritus of Jalapa, Mexico. There’s always a Mexican among Francis’ appointments, it seems, but this time the choice has fallen on an archbishop who has retired since 2007. The 86-year-old’s election is one of honour, then, perhaps in part because of his two presidencies of the Mexican bishops’ conference.

toribio_okToribio Cardinal Ticona Porco, Cardinal-Priest, Prelate emeritus of Corocoro, Bolivia. The 81-year-old retired prelate of a small mountain mining town could be said to have truly served on the fringes of the Catholic Church. The economy in the area has been stagnant since 1985, and the new cardinal has worked here for 20 years. He is the third Bolivian cardinal and the first not to come from one of the nation’s two capitals.

aquilinoAquilino Cardinal Bocos Merino, Cardinal-Deacon, Superior General emeritus of the Missionary Sons of the Immaculate Heart of Mary. Pope Francis places great value and emphasis on religious life, so in that sense it is odd that he names only three religious cardinals this time around. Perhaps he tries to balance that with the appointment of the 80-year-old Spanish Claretian who headed his order from 1991 to 2003. The order has produced four other cardinals, two of whom are still alive. It is f

By the time of the consistory, Pope Francis will have created almost half of the electors, or active members of the College of Cardinals. He will have created 59 of them, while 47 will have been created by Pope emeritus Benedict XVI and a further 19 by Pope Saint John Paul II.

With the new consistory, Italy remains over-represented in the College, with 22 electors. It is followed by the United States with 10, Spain, France and Pland with 5, and Mexico, Brazil and India with 4 electors each. All other countries are represented by 2 or less cardinal electors.

Other changes

Before yesterdays’ announcement of the upcoming consistory, another change took place in the College of Cardinals, albeit an expected one. Ten years after being created, a cardinal-deacon can opt to be elevated to the next rank of cardinal-priest. This changes nothing in their hands, but only in their precedence among the other cardinals and thus their duties at a conclave to elect a new pope.

All six cardinal-deacons who were created by Pope Benedict XVI in 2007 accepted this change and became cardinal-priests, thus joining the other 11 surviving cardinal of their consistory, rising in precedence from after the most recently-created cardinal-priests of Pope Francis, to roughly the middle section of the cardinal-priests.

These six cardinals, who all kept their title churches pro hac vice (“for this time”, ie. for the duration of their being cardinals, which is usually until death) are:

  • Leonardo Cardinal Sandri, Prefect of the Congregation for Oriental Churches and Grand Chancellor of the Pontifical Oriental Institute
  • Paul Josef Cardinal Cordes, President emeritus of the Pontifical Council “Cor Unum”
  • Angelo Cardinal Comastri, President of the Fabric of St. Peter, Archpriest of St. Peter’s Basilica and Vicar General for the Vatican City State
  • Raffaele Cardinal Farina, Archivist emeritus of the Vatican Secret Archives, Librarian emeritus of the Vatican Apostolic Library and President emeritus of the Pontifical Commission for Reference on the Institute for Works of Religion
  • Giovanni Cardinal Lajolo, President emeritus of the Pontifical Commission for the Vatican City State and President of the Governorate of the Vatican City State
  • Stanislaw Cardinal Rylko, Archpriest of the Papal Basilica of St. Mary Major

Risky trip – Pope to Lebanon

A week from today, on 14 September, Pope Benedict XVI will depart on what is, in some ways, one of the most risky apostolic journeys of his papacy. He will be returning to the Middle East for the fourth time – after Turkey (2006), Jordan, Israel and Palestine (2009) and Cyprus (2010) – and this time the ever-looming spectre of local tensions is very concrete in the form of the civil war raging in next-door Syria. And with Lebanon’s recent history firmly tied up with that of Syria, the papal journey has been in limbo until recently.

Lebanon is the most Christian country in the Middle East, with almost 40% of the population belonging to several Christian churches, with the Syriac Maronite Church of Antioch being the largest of these. Other Churches in union with Rome that have a significant presence in Lebanon are the Greek Melkites, the Armenian, the Chaldean, the Syrian and the Roman Catholic Church. All these Churches have their own circumscriptions, which makes for an intricate landscape of dioceses, patriarchates and vicariates. There are 33 active bishops and patriarchs in the country, headed by   the Patriarchs Béchara Pierre Raï (Maronite), Nersès Bédros XIX Tarmouni (Armenian) and Ignace Youssif III Younan (Syrian). Also of note are Lebanon’s only cardinal, Nasrallah Pierre Sfeir (Maronite emeritus) and Ignace Pierre VIII Abdel-Ahad (Syrian emeritus).

The upcoming papal visit will be a three-day affair, with major events careful spaced over the available time. On 14 September, the Holy Father will obviously be welcomed in Beirut, and he will sign the Post-Synodal Exhortation of the Special Assembly for the Middle East of the Synod of Bishops (which he himself kicked off during his visit to Cyprus two years ago). On 15 September, Pope Benedict will meet with representatives of the government, diplomats, religious leaders (always interesting in a country with a strong Muslim presence) and the world of culture. He’ll also meet with young people, another staple of papal visits abroad, at the Maronite Patriarchate in Bkerké. The last day, 16 September, will see a public Mass and the presentation of the Post-Synodal Exhortation, as well as the recitation of the Angelus and the departure ceremony.

A fairly short visit, but an important one, as its impact will not be limited to Lebanon. Countries like Syria and Iraq, which also have fairly significant Christian minorities, are no doubt also a focal point of this visit.

In the meantime, let’s pray for safety for the Holy Father during his journey to a place where tensions run high, and for a fruitful apostolic journey, for Christians in Lebanon and abroad.